russian version


X-ray reflectometer  -  Nano laboratory MINILAB-6   - nanotechnology   (capillary x-ray optics are used)



Advanced analytical system for nanostructure investigations



        X-ray reflectometry is now widely used in science and technology to measure and monitor thin film thickness, roughness of super- smooth surfaces, period of multilayer nanostructures and surface layer density. An X-ray Reflectometer X-Ray MiniLab manufactured by the Institute for Roentgen Optics (IRO) is now the most powerful tool in this X-ray metrology due to its unique features providing simultaneous measurements with a number of spectral lines. The X-ray reflectometer is specifically designed for diagnostics of thin films and interfaces. But due to flexible scheme it can also ensure standard X-ray techniques.


The IRO X-ray Reflectometer is based on latest developments in semitransparent monochromators, Kumakhov polycapillary optics, and unique patented design. We offer a genuine Minilab with unmatched combination of analytical features.




Complex of X-ray devices

Based on X-ray Reflectometer


5 Basic Operation Modes:


¨      Reflectometry

¨      Diffractometry

¨      Refractometry

¨       Small-angle scattering

¨       X-ray fluorescence


Try and enjoy advantages of simultaneous measurements in different spectral bands

Technical Specification

Controlled parameters:


¨      Surface and interface roughness (down to 0.05 nm)

¨      Thin layer thickness (1-300 nm)

¨      Structure period ( 0.1 nm )

¨      Surface layer density                                       

¨      Radius and concentration of nano-particles    

¨      Composition of layers        

¨      Radius of curvature  (up to 300m)

               Layered structure period


Software codes for:


system operation

system testing

reflectometry and refractometry data procession

           ◊ crystal parameters data-base (optional)

Goniometer system:


Minimum angle step – 0,0002o (0,7²)

angle range -145o (2q-detector axis)

-180 (w-sample axis)

sample linear translation with 2,5 mm step, range 100 mm

            maximum sample size – 200 mm


X-ray tube power supply:


High voltage range 10-45 kV

Power – 300 W (500 W optional)

Power stability – 0,01%

           Closed water cooling system with distilled water



Detection system:


3 scintillation channels

            ◊ Cooled Si-detector with a spectrum analyzer


Dimensions, mm (length x width x hight):

Reflectometer X-ray scheme – 950 ´ 500 ´ 450

Operation table – 1200 ´ 700 ´ 780

            ◊ Device in protective housing – 1200 ´ 700 ´ 1370


System weight, kg:


Reflectometer X-ray scheme – 35

            ◊ Device in protective housing – 135

New patented X-ray optical scheme of X-ray reflectometer MiniLab

Spectral lines are selected from the beam by tuning semitransparent monochramators to the predetermined Bragg angles. The X-ray scheme provides simultaneous measurements with two spectral lines (standard anode) and with three ones (composed anode) in this X-ray reflectometer

Short Application Notes on X-ray Reflectometer

Measurements of nano-size oxide layers

Mode 1:

Relative reflectometry mode


Provided now only by X-Ray reflectometer MiniLab


Unique method of intensity contrast development

EXAMPLE 1      Determination of very thin oxide layers

Sample description

Substrate: Si wafer

Film: Ni (900 nm) deposited by magnetron sputtering

Exposed to air atmosphere during 3 months after the preparation.



Fig.1. Angle dependence of reflected intensity ratio I(CuKa)/I(CuKb):

dots –experiment, solid line - mathematical simulation for idea.

    vacuum-Ni interface

Measured data: film thickness d(NiOx)=3,0 nm, NiOx composition x=1,9, film density r(NiOx)=5,5 g/cm3, surface roughness s=0,5 nm


EXAMPLE 2         Investigation of ion-implanted samples      

Sample description

Substrate: Si wafer with 42,5 nm oxide film

F+ - 40 keV, D=9,25 1015 ion/cm2



Fig. 2. Angle dependence of reflectivity for F+ -implanted sample

at l1=0,154 nm (1) and l2=0,139 nm (2)




Absence of intensity contrast in small angle range 2q<1o.


Fig. 3. Angle dependence of the reflectivity ratio R(l1)/R(l2) for F+ -implanted sample

at l=0,154 nm and l=0,139 nm (2)



Intensity contrast development in small angle range 2q<1o.

    Mode 2:





Bragg-Brentano focusing scheme

Samples – powders of aspirin and zeolite/

X-ray power – 28 kV, 10 mA



Fig. 2. q-2q diffraction scan of aspirin powder.


EXAMPLE 3        

Repeatability test

Two successive scans with two-hours interval: first – solid line, second - dots .

Fig. 3. q-2q diffraction scan of zeolite powder

Mode 3:

X-ray fluorescence


      EXAMPLE 4   


magnetic memory disc

Detection: Semiconductor Si-detector, 7 mm2

X-ray source: Cu-anode X-ray tube, 30 kV, 1 mA

Collimation: Polycapillary Kumakhov lens, focus spot 400 mm.

Fig. 4. X-ray fluorescence spectrum from magnetic memory layer.

Mode 4:

X-ray refraction

Provided now only by X-Ray reflectometer MiniLab


Sample description

Substrate: Si wafer

Bilayer structure: C(33 nm) - Ni (120 nm) deposited by thermal evaporation

Direct determination of the thin film density

Fig. 5. Refractogram of bilayer structure  C-Ni/Si, grazing angle  Θ=-0,08o.

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